Archive for December 19, 2010

Chinese Story !!

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Venous return (VR) is the flow of blood back to the heart. Under steady-state conditions, venous return must equal cardiac output (CO)  when averaged over time because the cardiovascular system is essentially a closed loop. Otherwise, blood would accumulate in either the systemic or pulmonary circulations. Although cardiac output and venous return are interdependent, each can be independently regulated.

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