Category: Physiology Courses



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I’m pleased to inform  medical students (1st year) that we are going to have a quick revision on the practical physiology classes of the 1st semester.  As usual, this will be held on Sunday 16/01/2011 from 1:00 to 3:00 pm.

As I promised, you may download the handout of the cardiac output lecture from the following link Cardiac Output & its regulation

With my best wishes


As the glomerular filtrate enters the renal tubules, it flows sequentially through the successive parts of the tubules before it is excreted as urine. Along this course, some substances are selectively reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood, whereas others are secreted from the blood into the tubular lumen.

Click the image to the left for the presentation.


Click the image to the left for the presentation.

You can also download the handout of the lecture.


I’m honored to introduce my first lecture operated through The Mindmap technique. Mostly, it is the first in Egypt and probably in the Middle East. I hope this unique delivery of the lecture will help you to get better understanding, panoramic view and easy recalling of one of the most important physiological subject Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure. Tomorrow, Insha Allah, I’ll upload the presentation and the handout.

Cardiac output II


Venous return (VR) is the flow of blood back to the heart. Under steady-state conditions, venous return must equal cardiac output (CO)  when averaged over time because the cardiovascular system is essentially a closed loop. Otherwise, blood would accumulate in either the systemic or pulmonary circulations. Although cardiac output and venous return are interdependent, each can be independently regulated.

Click the image for presentation

Cardiac Output (part I)


Adolf Eugen Fick (1829 –1901) was a German physiologist. He earned his doctorate in medicine at Marburg in 1851. In 1855 he introduced Fick’s Law of diffusion, which governs the diffusion of a gas across a fluid membrane. In 1870 he was the first to devise a technique for measuring cardiac output, called the Fick principle.

Click Fick’s image for the full presentation.

Cardiac Cycle & Heart Sounds


Understanding the events occured form the begining of  the heart beat till the next one. click the image to the left for full presentation. Also click  the following link to have a printable version of the Cardiac Cycle map

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